The applicant was first issued with an Australian passport in 1979. Before that, his name was listed in his mother’s passport. The applicant has since been issued with at least four Australian passports. In 2016, when the applicant attempted to renew his passport, he was informed by the respondent’s Department that he was not in fact an Australian citizen. The applicant deposes that he had never taken any steps to apply for Australian citizenship as he believed that he was already an Australian citizen.